Patient Education

West Denver Endocrinology would like to be your partner in health care. Feel free to ask your questions and share your concerns with me. I will work with you to develop a wellness program for the care and treatment you need.

 

To schedule an appointment, go to https://bookendocrinologist.10to8.com/

I welcome you to my practice and look forward to caring for you.

 

For more information:

clicking on below links will take you to a trusted 3rd party website 

https://www.thyroid.org/thyroid-information/

http://www.empoweryourhealth.org  

https://www.hormone.org/

http://prescriptionhelp.aace.com/

https://endocrinenews.endocrine.org/magazine-issues/?magazine_year=2018

https://www.endocrineweb.com/

https://www.mayoclinic.org/departments-centers/endocrinology/sections/news/nwc-20395600

https://www.endocrinology.org/clinical-practice/patient-information/

www.endocrinediseases.org/

https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/the-supplement-con/

https://www.skeptic.com/reading_room/why-functional-medicine-is-bogus/

http://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/2015/08/pdf/coet1-1508.pdf

https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/category/health-fraud/

https://www.badgut.org/information-centre/a-z-digestive-topics/leaky-gut-syndrome/

https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/bogus-diagnostic-tests/

https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/the-hormone-myth/ 

https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/adrenal-fatigue-is-it-real#1

https://endocrinenews.endocrine.org/myth-adrenal-fatigue/ 

 https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/S0025727300065698

https://www.naturopathicdiaries.com/

http://outpatient.aace.com/

http://obesity.aace.com/

https://www.thyroid.org/american-thyroid-association-statement-on-wilsons-syndrome/

https://www.eatthis.com/thyroid-myths/

 

 

Addison's Disease

Addison's disease is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones for proper bodily function. In people with Addison's disease, the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol, and in some cases, the adrenal glands also fail to produce enough aldosterone. These hormones are essential to body function. Cortisol affects the body response to stress, the body's ability to convert food into energy and the immune system's inflammatory response. Aldosterone helps to maintain the balance of sodium, potassium and water within the body. Both hormones also help to regulate blood pressure. When these hormones are at insufficient levels within the body, distressing and dangerous symptoms may occur. ...


Read More...

 

 

Adrenal Tumors

 

 

The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys at the back of the upper abdominal cavity. These small, triangular organs produce several hormones, including aldosterone, cortisol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisone, adrenalin and norepinephrine. Tumors can cause the adrenal glands to produce too much of one or more of these substances, resulting in serious health issues. Tumors of the adrenal gland may be caused by diseases of the endocrine system, such as Conn's syndrome, or may result in the development of endocrine diseases, such as Cushing's syndrome. Most adrenal tumors, even those that cause symptoms, are benign. ...


Read More...

 

 

Bone Mineral Density Test

 

 

A bone mineral density (BMD) test evaluates an individual's bone strength by measuring the density of calcium and other minerals in particular areas of bone. During normal aging, bones lose minerals and become thinner. If they become abnormally thin, however, the patient has a condition known as osteoporosis. ...


Read More...

 

 

Cushing's Syndrome

 

 

Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder caused by long-term exposure to abnormally high levels of cortisol. Sometimes, corticosteroids used to treat inflammatory disease can lead to Cushing's syndrome. At other times, the disorder is caused by a tumor on one of the endocrine glands or on the lungs. Cushing's syndrome should not be confused with Cushing's disease, which is a form of Cushing's syndrome in which the pituitary gland secretes too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which in turn promotes the release of too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome most frequently occurs in adults between the ages of 20 and 50. Patients who are obese, diabetic, or suffer from hypertension are at greater risk of developing the disorder. ...


Read More...

 

 

Diabetes

 

 

Diabetes is the inability of the body to create or use insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas that enables sugar or glucose to enter cells. Diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disorder in which the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not respond to the insulin being produced. ...


Read More...

 

 

Endocrinology

 

 

Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the endocrine system, the system comprised of glands that produce essential hormones. These hormones regulate a great many bodily processes, including metabolism, reproduction, sexual function, growth and development. The glands of the endocrine system are the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, adrenal, pituitary, and hypothalamus. Endocrinologists diagnose and treat glandular diseases and hormone imbalances. ...


Read More...

 

 

Graves' Disease

 

 

Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system resulting in the overproduction of hormones by the thyroid gland, or hyperthyroidism. Like most other immune system irregularities, its cause is unknown, though research to date has shown that heredity, age, gender and stress level are risk factors for the condition. Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism and is most common in women between 20 and 40 years of age. Graves' disease is usually treatable and may even resolve on its own over time. Left untreated, however, a severe case can become life-threatening. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hashimoto's Disease

 

 

 

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland, which plays an important role in managing many of the functions of the body. Also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, Hashimoto's disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result of Hashimoto's disease, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women are more likely than men to develop this condition. Left untreated, Hashimoto's disease may cause a variety of health complications. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hyperthyroidism

 

 

 

Hyperthyroidism, also known as an overactive thyroid gland, is a condition that occurs when the thyroid gland excretes an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. This overproduction creates more hormones than the body needs and causes many important bodily functions to speed up. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use, metabolism, heart and nervous system functions and other metabolic functions. An overproduction of thyroid hormones can lead to weight loss, irregular heartbeat and irritability. Hyperthyroidism is more common in people over the age of 60 and women are more likely than men to develop hyperthyroidism. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypothyroidism

 

 

Hypothyroidism is a common condition that occurs when an underactive thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones to properly manage many important functions of the body. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use and metabolic functions. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women over the age of age of 60 are at the highest risk for developing hypothyroidism. Left untreated, this condition may cause a variety of health complications including obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart disease ...


Read More...

 

 

Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy

 

 

Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland malfunctions and produces an abnormal quantity of hormones. When a malfunctioning thyroid gland produces too much or too little hormone during pregnancy, abnormal hormone secretion can be damaging not only to the mother, but to the developing fetus as well. This is because thyroid hormone is essential to the development of the fetal brain and nervous system and, until about 12 weeks into gestation, the fetus depends on its mother's supply of thyroid hormone. ...


Read More...

 

 

Acromegaly

 

 

Acromegaly is a rare endocrinological disorder in which an excessive amount of growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland after normal growth has been completed. In almost all cases, acromegaly results from a noncancerous tumor on the pituitary gland. In rare instances, acromegaly is caused by a tumor elsewhere in the body. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypercalcemia

 

 

Hypercalcemia means that a patient has an overabundance of calcium in the blood. While calcium is essential and plays a significant role in maintaining bone strength, muscular contraction and central nervous system function, too much calcium can be harmful. Hypercalcemia most frequently affects women over 50 years of age. Most often, hypercalcemia is due to overactivity of the parathyroid gland, known as hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate calcium blood levels. If these glands secrete too much PTH, the result is hypercalcemia. Other possible causes of this condition include hyperthyroidism, certain types of cancer, inflammatory granulomas, adrenal gland disorders, very high dietary calcium intake, kidney failure, an overabundance of vitamin D and certain medications. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypoparathyroidism

 

 

Hypoparathyroidism is a disease condition in which the parathyroid glands, located at the base of the neck on the thyroid glands, produce too little parathyroid hormone, known as PTH. This hormone aids in regulating the levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in the bloodstream. In patients with hypoparathyroidism, phosphorus levels increase and calcium levels decrease. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypopituitarism

 

 

 

Hypopituitarism is a rare disorder in which the pituitary gland does not produce an adequate supply of one or more pituitary hormone. Because the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, produces hormones that control the functions of many other organs and glands, inadequate hormone production can lead to serious loss of function in one or another system of the body. ...


Read More...

 

 

Female Infertility

 

 

Couples are considered to have infertility problems if they have been unable to conceive after a prolonged period, usually a year, of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility may be attributed to the man, the woman, or both partners. When a female cause of infertility is determined, which occurs about one-third of the time, there are many measures that can be taken to help the couple conceive. Single women who are having trouble becoming pregnant may also seek medical evaluation. ...


Read More...

 

 

Metabolic Bone Diseases

 

 

Metabolic bone disease refers to a variety of disorders that affect bone strength or structure. Osteoporosis is the most widespread of these conditions, but there are a number of other metabolic bone diseases that can lead to fractures, deformity and abnormal functioning if not treated promptly. These disorders may be the result of genetic factors, diet and lifestyle, or other underlying disease conditions. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hyperparathyroidism

 

 

The parathyroid glands are four small glands in the neck that are part of the endocrine system. They produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood.

The most common disease associated with the parathyroid glands is overproduction of PTH, known as hyperparathyroidism. Twice as many women as men suffer from this condition and the risk of developing hyperparathyroidism increases with age, as it is more common in patients over the age of 60. Risk factors for hyperparathyroidism include having had radiation treatment to the head or neck. Rarely, cancer may be the cause of the condition. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypocalcemia

 

 

Hypocalcemia is a disorder in which there is a calcium deficiency in the blood. Calcium is an essential mineral that assists in bone strengthening, muscle contraction and proper functioning of the central nervous system. While patients with hypocalcemia may be asymptomatic, the condition can be life-threatening if left untreated. It most commonly occurs in populations where there is insufficient intake of vitamin D or in patients who have undergone a total parathyroidectomy (removal of the parathyroid glands). It may also occur as a congenital condition in infants, particularly those born prematurely or to a diabetic mother, or in infants stressed by illness or infection. ...


Read More...

 

 

Osteoporosis

 

 

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes the bones to become weak and brittle, placing them at a high risk for fracture. In all individuals, bone wears down over time, but is replaced with new bone tissue. As people age, bone loss occurs at a faster rate than new bone is created, resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the result of increasing bone loss, and is more common in older people, especially women. ...


Read More...

 

 

Parathyroidectomy

 

 

The parathyroid glands are four small glands located behind the thyroid that regulate the calcium level in the blood. By controlling the amount of calcium in the body, the parathyroid glands control the strength and density of the bones, as well as other systemic functions. A parathyroidectomy is a procedure during which one or more of the parathyroid glands is removed. The most common reason for a parathyroidectomy is the presence of a small benign tumor, known as an adenoma. The adenoma causes an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), resulting in hyperparathyroidism, an imbalance that can cause uncomfortable and serious symptoms. ...


Read More...

 

 

Pituitary Adenoma

 

 

A pituitary adenoma is a tumor that develops on the pituitary gland, a gland located at the base of the brain. Since the pituitary gland not only secretes several hormones, but also regulates secretions from other glands, an adenoma may affect many systems of the body. Pituitary adenomas are benign, though in rare instances they may become malignant. Treatment is usually required to ensure proper pituitary gland function and to alleviate or prevent symptoms. ...


Read More...

 

 

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

 

 

 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine system disorder that commonly affects women in their reproductive years. Women with PCOS often have multiple small cysts on their ovaries and experience irregular menstrual periods. PCOS is the leading cause of infertility in women and although the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to be the result of a hormonal imbalance. In women with PCOS, the ovaries produce more androgens than normal. High levels of these hormones affect the development and release of eggs during ovulation, and may also cause troubling symptoms such as excess hair growth and acne. ...


Read More...

 

 

Precocious Puberty

 

 

Puberty is the period when a young person begins the process of sexual maturation that will result in the ability to reproduce. Puberty involves accelerated growth and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. These bodily changes occur at various ages, usually between 9 and 14 years of age for girls and 12 and 16 years of age for boys, and are associated with psychological changes as well. Precocious puberty occurs when the process of sexual maturation begins at an abnormally young age. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hormone Imbalance

 

 

Hormones are natural chemicals within the cells of the body that travel through the bloodstream to organs and tissues. Hormones are essential for a variety of functions, including regulating a woman's metabolism, growth, immunity function and sexual reproduction. Hormone production tends to decrease naturally over time. As the production of certain hormones decreases, there may be an overproduction of other hormones within the body, which often results in hormonal imbalances that affect the health in different ways. ...


Read More...


Back to top

 

Addison's Disease

 

Addison's disease is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones for proper bodily function. In people with Addison's disease, the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol, and in some cases, the adrenal glands also fail to produce enough aldosterone. These hormones are essential to body function. Cortisol affects the body response to stress, the body's ability to convert food into energy and the immune system's inflammatory response. Aldosterone helps to maintain the balance of sodium, potassium and water within the body. Both hormones also help to regulate blood pressure. When these hormones are at insufficient levels within the body, distressing and dangerous symptoms may occur. ...


Read More...

 

 

Adrenal Tumors

 

 

The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys at the back of the upper abdominal cavity. These small, triangular organs produce several hormones, including aldosterone, cortisol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisone, adrenalin and norepinephrine. Tumors can cause the adrenal glands to produce too much of one or more of these substances, resulting in serious health issues. Tumors of the adrenal gland may be caused by diseases of the endocrine system, such as Conn's syndrome, or may result in the development of endocrine diseases, such as Cushing's syndrome. Most adrenal tumors, even those that cause symptoms, are benign. ...


Read More...

 

 

Bone Mineral Density Test

 

 

A bone mineral density (BMD) test evaluates an individual's bone strength by measuring the density of calcium and other minerals in particular areas of bone. During normal aging, bones lose minerals and become thinner. If they become abnormally thin, however, the patient has a condition known as osteoporosis. ...


Read More...

 

 

Cushing's Syndrome

 

 

Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder caused by long-term exposure to abnormally high levels of cortisol. Sometimes, corticosteroids used to treat inflammatory disease can lead to Cushing's syndrome. At other times, the disorder is caused by a tumor on one of the endocrine glands or on the lungs. Cushing's syndrome should not be confused with Cushing's disease, which is a form of Cushing's syndrome in which the pituitary gland secretes too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which in turn promotes the release of too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome most frequently occurs in adults between the ages of 20 and 50. Patients who are obese, diabetic, or suffer from hypertension are at greater risk of developing the disorder. ...


Read More...

 

 

Diabetes

 

 

Diabetes is the inability of the body to create or use insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas that enables sugar or glucose to enter cells. Diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disorder in which the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not respond to the insulin being produced. ...


Read More...

 

 

Endocrinology

 

 

Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the endocrine system, the system comprised of glands that produce essential hormones. These hormones regulate a great many bodily processes, including metabolism, reproduction, sexual function, growth and development. The glands of the endocrine system are the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, adrenal, pituitary, and hypothalamus. Endocrinologists diagnose and treat glandular diseases and hormone imbalances. ...


Read More...

 

 

Graves' Disease

 

 

Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system resulting in the overproduction of hormones by the thyroid gland, or hyperthyroidism. Like most other immune system irregularities, its cause is unknown, though research to date has shown that heredity, age, gender and stress level are risk factors for the condition. Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism and is most common in women between 20 and 40 years of age. Graves' disease is usually treatable and may even resolve on its own over time. Left untreated, however, a severe case can become life-threatening. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hashimoto's Disease

 

 

 

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland, which plays an important role in managing many of the functions of the body. Also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, Hashimoto's disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result of Hashimoto's disease, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women are more likely than men to develop this condition. Left untreated, Hashimoto's disease may cause a variety of health complications. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hyperthyroidism

 

 

 

Hyperthyroidism, also known as an overactive thyroid gland, is a condition that occurs when the thyroid gland excretes an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. This overproduction creates more hormones than the body needs and causes many important bodily functions to speed up. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use, metabolism, heart and nervous system functions and other metabolic functions. An overproduction of thyroid hormones can lead to weight loss, irregular heartbeat and irritability. Hyperthyroidism is more common in people over the age of 60 and women are more likely than men to develop hyperthyroidism. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypothyroidism

 

 

Hypothyroidism is a common condition that occurs when an underactive thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones to properly manage many important functions of the body. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use and metabolic functions. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women over the age of age of 60 are at the highest risk for developing hypothyroidism. Left untreated, this condition may cause a variety of health complications including obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart disease ...


Read More...

 

 

Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy

 

 

Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland malfunctions and produces an abnormal quantity of hormones. When a malfunctioning thyroid gland produces too much or too little hormone during pregnancy, abnormal hormone secretion can be damaging not only to the mother, but to the developing fetus as well. This is because thyroid hormone is essential to the development of the fetal brain and nervous system and, until about 12 weeks into gestation, the fetus depends on its mother's supply of thyroid hormone. ...


Read More...

 

 

Acromegaly

 

 

Acromegaly is a rare endocrinological disorder in which an excessive amount of growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland after normal growth has been completed. In almost all cases, acromegaly results from a noncancerous tumor on the pituitary gland. In rare instances, acromegaly is caused by a tumor elsewhere in the body. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypercalcemia

 

 

Hypercalcemia means that a patient has an overabundance of calcium in the blood. While calcium is essential and plays a significant role in maintaining bone strength, muscular contraction and central nervous system function, too much calcium can be harmful. Hypercalcemia most frequently affects women over 50 years of age. Most often, hypercalcemia is due to overactivity of the parathyroid gland, known as hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate calcium blood levels. If these glands secrete too much PTH, the result is hypercalcemia. Other possible causes of this condition include hyperthyroidism, certain types of cancer, inflammatory granulomas, adrenal gland disorders, very high dietary calcium intake, kidney failure, an overabundance of vitamin D and certain medications. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypoparathyroidism

 

 

Hypoparathyroidism is a disease condition in which the parathyroid glands, located at the base of the neck on the thyroid glands, produce too little parathyroid hormone, known as PTH. This hormone aids in regulating the levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in the bloodstream. In patients with hypoparathyroidism, phosphorus levels increase and calcium levels decrease. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypopituitarism

 

 

 

Hypopituitarism is a rare disorder in which the pituitary gland does not produce an adequate supply of one or more pituitary hormone. Because the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, produces hormones that control the functions of many other organs and glands, inadequate hormone production can lead to serious loss of function in one or another system of the body. ...


Read More...

 

 

Female Infertility

 

 

Couples are considered to have infertility problems if they have been unable to conceive after a prolonged period, usually a year, of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility may be attributed to the man, the woman, or both partners. When a female cause of infertility is determined, which occurs about one-third of the time, there are many measures that can be taken to help the couple conceive. Single women who are having trouble becoming pregnant may also seek medical evaluation. ...


Read More...

 

 

Metabolic Bone Diseases

 

 

Metabolic bone disease refers to a variety of disorders that affect bone strength or structure. Osteoporosis is the most widespread of these conditions, but there are a number of other metabolic bone diseases that can lead to fractures, deformity and abnormal functioning if not treated promptly. These disorders may be the result of genetic factors, diet and lifestyle, or other underlying disease conditions. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hyperparathyroidism

 

 

The parathyroid glands are four small glands in the neck that are part of the endocrine system. They produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood.

The most common disease associated with the parathyroid glands is overproduction of PTH, known as hyperparathyroidism. Twice as many women as men suffer from this condition and the risk of developing hyperparathyroidism increases with age, as it is more common in patients over the age of 60. Risk factors for hyperparathyroidism include having had radiation treatment to the head or neck. Rarely, cancer may be the cause of the condition. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypocalcemia

 

 

Hypocalcemia is a disorder in which there is a calcium deficiency in the blood. Calcium is an essential mineral that assists in bone strengthening, muscle contraction and proper functioning of the central nervous system. While patients with hypocalcemia may be asymptomatic, the condition can be life-threatening if left untreated. It most commonly occurs in populations where there is insufficient intake of vitamin D or in patients who have undergone a total parathyroidectomy (removal of the parathyroid glands). It may also occur as a congenital condition in infants, particularly those born prematurely or to a diabetic mother, or in infants stressed by illness or infection. ...


Read More...

 

 

Osteoporosis

 

 

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes the bones to become weak and brittle, placing them at a high risk for fracture. In all individuals, bone wears down over time, but is replaced with new bone tissue. As people age, bone loss occurs at a faster rate than new bone is created, resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the result of increasing bone loss, and is more common in older people, especially women. ...


Read More...

 

 

Parathyroidectomy

 

 

The parathyroid glands are four small glands located behind the thyroid that regulate the calcium level in the blood. By controlling the amount of calcium in the body, the parathyroid glands control the strength and density of the bones, as well as other systemic functions. A parathyroidectomy is a procedure during which one or more of the parathyroid glands is removed. The most common reason for a parathyroidectomy is the presence of a small benign tumor, known as an adenoma. The adenoma causes an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), resulting in hyperparathyroidism, an imbalance that can cause uncomfortable and serious symptoms. ...


Read More...

 

 

Pituitary Adenoma

 

 

A pituitary adenoma is a tumor that develops on the pituitary gland, a gland located at the base of the brain. Since the pituitary gland not only secretes several hormones, but also regulates secretions from other glands, an adenoma may affect many systems of the body. Pituitary adenomas are benign, though in rare instances they may become malignant. Treatment is usually required to ensure proper pituitary gland function and to alleviate or prevent symptoms. ...


Read More...

 

 

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

 

 

 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine system disorder that commonly affects women in their reproductive years. Women with PCOS often have multiple small cysts on their ovaries and experience irregular menstrual periods. PCOS is the leading cause of infertility in women and although the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to be the result of a hormonal imbalance. In women with PCOS, the ovaries produce more androgens than normal. High levels of these hormones affect the development and release of eggs during ovulation, and may also cause troubling symptoms such as excess hair growth and acne. ...


Read More...

 

 

Precocious Puberty

 

 

Puberty is the period when a young person begins the process of sexual maturation that will result in the ability to reproduce. Puberty involves accelerated growth and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. These bodily changes occur at various ages, usually between 9 and 14 years of age for girls and 12 and 16 years of age for boys, and are associated with psychological changes as well. Precocious puberty occurs when the process of sexual maturation begins at an abnormally young age. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hormone Imbalance

 

 

Hormones are natural chemicals within the cells of the body that travel through the bloodstream to organs and tissues. Hormones are essential for a variety of functions, including regulating a woman's metabolism, growth, immunity function and sexual reproduction. Hormone production tends to decrease naturally over time. As the production of certain hormones decreases, there may be an overproduction of other hormones within the body, which often results in hormonal imbalances that affect the health in different ways. ...


Read More...

 

Addison's Disease

 

Addison's disease is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones for proper bodily function. In people with Addison's disease, the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol, and in some cases, the adrenal glands also fail to produce enough aldosterone. These hormones are essential to body function. Cortisol affects the body response to stress, the body's ability to convert food into energy and the immune system's inflammatory response. Aldosterone helps to maintain the balance of sodium, potassium and water within the body. Both hormones also help to regulate blood pressure. When these hormones are at insufficient levels within the body, distressing and dangerous symptoms may occur. ...


Read More...

 

 

Adrenal Tumors

 

 

The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys at the back of the upper abdominal cavity. These small, triangular organs produce several hormones, including aldosterone, cortisol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisone, adrenalin and norepinephrine. Tumors can cause the adrenal glands to produce too much of one or more of these substances, resulting in serious health issues. Tumors of the adrenal gland may be caused by diseases of the endocrine system, such as Conn's syndrome, or may result in the development of endocrine diseases, such as Cushing's syndrome. Most adrenal tumors, even those that cause symptoms, are benign. ...


Read More...

 

 

Bone Mineral Density Test

 

 

A bone mineral density (BMD) test evaluates an individual's bone strength by measuring the density of calcium and other minerals in particular areas of bone. During normal aging, bones lose minerals and become thinner. If they become abnormally thin, however, the patient has a condition known as osteoporosis. ...


Read More...

 

 

Cushing's Syndrome

 

 

Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder caused by long-term exposure to abnormally high levels of cortisol. Sometimes, corticosteroids used to treat inflammatory disease can lead to Cushing's syndrome. At other times, the disorder is caused by a tumor on one of the endocrine glands or on the lungs. Cushing's syndrome should not be confused with Cushing's disease, which is a form of Cushing's syndrome in which the pituitary gland secretes too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which in turn promotes the release of too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome most frequently occurs in adults between the ages of 20 and 50. Patients who are obese, diabetic, or suffer from hypertension are at greater risk of developing the disorder. ...


Read More...

 

 

Diabetes

 

 

Diabetes is the inability of the body to create or use insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas that enables sugar or glucose to enter cells. Diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disorder in which the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not respond to the insulin being produced. ...


Read More...

 

 

Endocrinology

 

 

Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the endocrine system, the system comprised of glands that produce essential hormones. These hormones regulate a great many bodily processes, including metabolism, reproduction, sexual function, growth and development. The glands of the endocrine system are the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, adrenal, pituitary, and hypothalamus. Endocrinologists diagnose and treat glandular diseases and hormone imbalances. ...


Read More...

 

 

Graves' Disease

 

 

Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system resulting in the overproduction of hormones by the thyroid gland, or hyperthyroidism. Like most other immune system irregularities, its cause is unknown, though research to date has shown that heredity, age, gender and stress level are risk factors for the condition. Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism and is most common in women between 20 and 40 years of age. Graves' disease is usually treatable and may even resolve on its own over time. Left untreated, however, a severe case can become life-threatening. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hashimoto's Disease

 

 

 

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland, which plays an important role in managing many of the functions of the body. Also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, Hashimoto's disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result of Hashimoto's disease, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women are more likely than men to develop this condition. Left untreated, Hashimoto's disease may cause a variety of health complications. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hyperthyroidism

 

 

 

Hyperthyroidism, also known as an overactive thyroid gland, is a condition that occurs when the thyroid gland excretes an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. This overproduction creates more hormones than the body needs and causes many important bodily functions to speed up. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use, metabolism, heart and nervous system functions and other metabolic functions. An overproduction of thyroid hormones can lead to weight loss, irregular heartbeat and irritability. Hyperthyroidism is more common in people over the age of 60 and women are more likely than men to develop hyperthyroidism. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypothyroidism

 

 

Hypothyroidism is a common condition that occurs when an underactive thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones to properly manage many important functions of the body. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use and metabolic functions. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women over the age of age of 60 are at the highest risk for developing hypothyroidism. Left untreated, this condition may cause a variety of health complications including obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart disease ...


Read More...

 

 

Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy

 

 

Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland malfunctions and produces an abnormal quantity of hormones. When a malfunctioning thyroid gland produces too much or too little hormone during pregnancy, abnormal hormone secretion can be damaging not only to the mother, but to the developing fetus as well. This is because thyroid hormone is essential to the development of the fetal brain and nervous system and, until about 12 weeks into gestation, the fetus depends on its mother's supply of thyroid hormone. ...


Read More...

 

 

Acromegaly

 

 

Acromegaly is a rare endocrinological disorder in which an excessive amount of growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland after normal growth has been completed. In almost all cases, acromegaly results from a noncancerous tumor on the pituitary gland. In rare instances, acromegaly is caused by a tumor elsewhere in the body. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypercalcemia

 

 

Hypercalcemia means that a patient has an overabundance of calcium in the blood. While calcium is essential and plays a significant role in maintaining bone strength, muscular contraction and central nervous system function, too much calcium can be harmful. Hypercalcemia most frequently affects women over 50 years of age. Most often, hypercalcemia is due to overactivity of the parathyroid gland, known as hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate calcium blood levels. If these glands secrete too much PTH, the result is hypercalcemia. Other possible causes of this condition include hyperthyroidism, certain types of cancer, inflammatory granulomas, adrenal gland disorders, very high dietary calcium intake, kidney failure, an overabundance of vitamin D and certain medications. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypoparathyroidism

 

 

Hypoparathyroidism is a disease condition in which the parathyroid glands, located at the base of the neck on the thyroid glands, produce too little parathyroid hormone, known as PTH. This hormone aids in regulating the levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in the bloodstream. In patients with hypoparathyroidism, phosphorus levels increase and calcium levels decrease. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypopituitarism

 

 

 

Hypopituitarism is a rare disorder in which the pituitary gland does not produce an adequate supply of one or more pituitary hormone. Because the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, produces hormones that control the functions of many other organs and glands, inadequate hormone production can lead to serious loss of function in one or another system of the body. ...


Read More...

 

 

Female Infertility

 

 

Couples are considered to have infertility problems if they have been unable to conceive after a prolonged period, usually a year, of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility may be attributed to the man, the woman, or both partners. When a female cause of infertility is determined, which occurs about one-third of the time, there are many measures that can be taken to help the couple conceive. Single women who are having trouble becoming pregnant may also seek medical evaluation. ...


Read More...

 

 

Metabolic Bone Diseases

 

 

Metabolic bone disease refers to a variety of disorders that affect bone strength or structure. Osteoporosis is the most widespread of these conditions, but there are a number of other metabolic bone diseases that can lead to fractures, deformity and abnormal functioning if not treated promptly. These disorders may be the result of genetic factors, diet and lifestyle, or other underlying disease conditions. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hyperparathyroidism

 

 

The parathyroid glands are four small glands in the neck that are part of the endocrine system. They produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood.

The most common disease associated with the parathyroid glands is overproduction of PTH, known as hyperparathyroidism. Twice as many women as men suffer from this condition and the risk of developing hyperparathyroidism increases with age, as it is more common in patients over the age of 60. Risk factors for hyperparathyroidism include having had radiation treatment to the head or neck. Rarely, cancer may be the cause of the condition. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypocalcemia

 

 

Hypocalcemia is a disorder in which there is a calcium deficiency in the blood. Calcium is an essential mineral that assists in bone strengthening, muscle contraction and proper functioning of the central nervous system. While patients with hypocalcemia may be asymptomatic, the condition can be life-threatening if left untreated. It most commonly occurs in populations where there is insufficient intake of vitamin D or in patients who have undergone a total parathyroidectomy (removal of the parathyroid glands). It may also occur as a congenital condition in infants, particularly those born prematurely or to a diabetic mother, or in infants stressed by illness or infection. ...


Read More...

 

 

Osteoporosis

 

 

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes the bones to become weak and brittle, placing them at a high risk for fracture. In all individuals, bone wears down over time, but is replaced with new bone tissue. As people age, bone loss occurs at a faster rate than new bone is created, resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the result of increasing bone loss, and is more common in older people, especially women. ...


Read More...

 

 

Parathyroidectomy

 

 

The parathyroid glands are four small glands located behind the thyroid that regulate the calcium level in the blood. By controlling the amount of calcium in the body, the parathyroid glands control the strength and density of the bones, as well as other systemic functions. A parathyroidectomy is a procedure during which one or more of the parathyroid glands is removed. The most common reason for a parathyroidectomy is the presence of a small benign tumor, known as an adenoma. The adenoma causes an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), resulting in hyperparathyroidism, an imbalance that can cause uncomfortable and serious symptoms. ...


Read More...

 

 

Pituitary Adenoma

 

 

A pituitary adenoma is a tumor that develops on the pituitary gland, a gland located at the base of the brain. Since the pituitary gland not only secretes several hormones, but also regulates secretions from other glands, an adenoma may affect many systems of the body. Pituitary adenomas are benign, though in rare instances they may become malignant. Treatment is usually required to ensure proper pituitary gland function and to alleviate or prevent symptoms. ...


Read More...

 

 

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

 

 

 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine system disorder that commonly affects women in their reproductive years. Women with PCOS often have multiple small cysts on their ovaries and experience irregular menstrual periods. PCOS is the leading cause of infertility in women and although the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to be the result of a hormonal imbalance. In women with PCOS, the ovaries produce more androgens than normal. High levels of these hormones affect the development and release of eggs during ovulation, and may also cause troubling symptoms such as excess hair growth and acne. ...


Read More...

 

 

Precocious Puberty

 

 

Puberty is the period when a young person begins the process of sexual maturation that will result in the ability to reproduce. Puberty involves accelerated growth and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. These bodily changes occur at various ages, usually between 9 and 14 years of age for girls and 12 and 16 years of age for boys, and are associated with psychological changes as well. Precocious puberty occurs when the process of sexual maturation begins at an abnormally young age. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hormone Imbalance

 

 

Hormones are natural chemicals within the cells of the body that travel through the bloodstream to organs and tissues. Hormones are essential for a variety of functions, including regulating a woman's metabolism, growth, immunity function and sexual reproduction. Hormone production tends to decrease naturally over time. As the production of certain hormones decreases, there may be an overproduction of other hormones within the body, which often results in hormonal imbalances that affect the health in different ways. ...


Read More...

 

Addison's Disease

 

Addison's disease is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones for proper bodily function. In people with Addison's disease, the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol, and in some cases, the adrenal glands also fail to produce enough aldosterone. These hormones are essential to body function. Cortisol affects the body response to stress, the body's ability to convert food into energy and the immune system's inflammatory response. Aldosterone helps to maintain the balance of sodium, potassium and water within the body. Both hormones also help to regulate blood pressure. When these hormones are at insufficient levels within the body, distressing and dangerous symptoms may occur. ...


Read More...

 

 

Adrenal Tumors

 

 

The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys at the back of the upper abdominal cavity. These small, triangular organs produce several hormones, including aldosterone, cortisol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisone, adrenalin and norepinephrine. Tumors can cause the adrenal glands to produce too much of one or more of these substances, resulting in serious health issues. Tumors of the adrenal gland may be caused by diseases of the endocrine system, such as Conn's syndrome, or may result in the development of endocrine diseases, such as Cushing's syndrome. Most adrenal tumors, even those that cause symptoms, are benign. ...


Read More...

 

 

Bone Mineral Density Test

 

 

A bone mineral density (BMD) test evaluates an individual's bone strength by measuring the density of calcium and other minerals in particular areas of bone. During normal aging, bones lose minerals and become thinner. If they become abnormally thin, however, the patient has a condition known as osteoporosis. ...


Read More...

 

 

Cushing's Syndrome

 

 

Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder caused by long-term exposure to abnormally high levels of cortisol. Sometimes, corticosteroids used to treat inflammatory disease can lead to Cushing's syndrome. At other times, the disorder is caused by a tumor on one of the endocrine glands or on the lungs. Cushing's syndrome should not be confused with Cushing's disease, which is a form of Cushing's syndrome in which the pituitary gland secretes too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which in turn promotes the release of too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome most frequently occurs in adults between the ages of 20 and 50. Patients who are obese, diabetic, or suffer from hypertension are at greater risk of developing the disorder. ...


Read More...

 

 

Diabetes

 

 

Diabetes is the inability of the body to create or use insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas that enables sugar or glucose to enter cells. Diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disorder in which the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not respond to the insulin being produced. ...


Read More...

 

 

Endocrinology

 

 

Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the endocrine system, the system comprised of glands that produce essential hormones. These hormones regulate a great many bodily processes, including metabolism, reproduction, sexual function, growth and development. The glands of the endocrine system are the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, adrenal, pituitary, and hypothalamus. Endocrinologists diagnose and treat glandular diseases and hormone imbalances. ...


Read More...

 

 

Graves' Disease

 

 

Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system resulting in the overproduction of hormones by the thyroid gland, or hyperthyroidism. Like most other immune system irregularities, its cause is unknown, though research to date has shown that heredity, age, gender and stress level are risk factors for the condition. Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism and is most common in women between 20 and 40 years of age. Graves' disease is usually treatable and may even resolve on its own over time. Left untreated, however, a severe case can become life-threatening. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hashimoto's Disease

 

 

 

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland, which plays an important role in managing many of the functions of the body. Also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, Hashimoto's disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result of Hashimoto's disease, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women are more likely than men to develop this condition. Left untreated, Hashimoto's disease may cause a variety of health complications. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hyperthyroidism

 

 

 

Hyperthyroidism, also known as an overactive thyroid gland, is a condition that occurs when the thyroid gland excretes an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. This overproduction creates more hormones than the body needs and causes many important bodily functions to speed up. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use, metabolism, heart and nervous system functions and other metabolic functions. An overproduction of thyroid hormones can lead to weight loss, irregular heartbeat and irritability. Hyperthyroidism is more common in people over the age of 60 and women are more likely than men to develop hyperthyroidism. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypothyroidism

 

 

Hypothyroidism is a common condition that occurs when an underactive thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones to properly manage many important functions of the body. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use and metabolic functions. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women over the age of age of 60 are at the highest risk for developing hypothyroidism. Left untreated, this condition may cause a variety of health complications including obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart disease ...


Read More...

 

 

Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy

 

 

Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland malfunctions and produces an abnormal quantity of hormones. When a malfunctioning thyroid gland produces too much or too little hormone during pregnancy, abnormal hormone secretion can be damaging not only to the mother, but to the developing fetus as well. This is because thyroid hormone is essential to the development of the fetal brain and nervous system and, until about 12 weeks into gestation, the fetus depends on its mother's supply of thyroid hormone. ...


Read More...

 

 

Acromegaly

 

 

Acromegaly is a rare endocrinological disorder in which an excessive amount of growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland after normal growth has been completed. In almost all cases, acromegaly results from a noncancerous tumor on the pituitary gland. In rare instances, acromegaly is caused by a tumor elsewhere in the body. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypercalcemia

 

 

Hypercalcemia means that a patient has an overabundance of calcium in the blood. While calcium is essential and plays a significant role in maintaining bone strength, muscular contraction and central nervous system function, too much calcium can be harmful. Hypercalcemia most frequently affects women over 50 years of age. Most often, hypercalcemia is due to overactivity of the parathyroid gland, known as hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate calcium blood levels. If these glands secrete too much PTH, the result is hypercalcemia. Other possible causes of this condition include hyperthyroidism, certain types of cancer, inflammatory granulomas, adrenal gland disorders, very high dietary calcium intake, kidney failure, an overabundance of vitamin D and certain medications. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypoparathyroidism

 

 

Hypoparathyroidism is a disease condition in which the parathyroid glands, located at the base of the neck on the thyroid glands, produce too little parathyroid hormone, known as PTH. This hormone aids in regulating the levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in the bloodstream. In patients with hypoparathyroidism, phosphorus levels increase and calcium levels decrease. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypopituitarism

 

 

 

Hypopituitarism is a rare disorder in which the pituitary gland does not produce an adequate supply of one or more pituitary hormone. Because the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, produces hormones that control the functions of many other organs and glands, inadequate hormone production can lead to serious loss of function in one or another system of the body. ...


Read More...

 

 

Female Infertility

 

 

Couples are considered to have infertility problems if they have been unable to conceive after a prolonged period, usually a year, of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility may be attributed to the man, the woman, or both partners. When a female cause of infertility is determined, which occurs about one-third of the time, there are many measures that can be taken to help the couple conceive. Single women who are having trouble becoming pregnant may also seek medical evaluation. ...


Read More...

 

 

Metabolic Bone Diseases

 

 

Metabolic bone disease refers to a variety of disorders that affect bone strength or structure. Osteoporosis is the most widespread of these conditions, but there are a number of other metabolic bone diseases that can lead to fractures, deformity and abnormal functioning if not treated promptly. These disorders may be the result of genetic factors, diet and lifestyle, or other underlying disease conditions. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hyperparathyroidism

 

 

The parathyroid glands are four small glands in the neck that are part of the endocrine system. They produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood.

The most common disease associated with the parathyroid glands is overproduction of PTH, known as hyperparathyroidism. Twice as many women as men suffer from this condition and the risk of developing hyperparathyroidism increases with age, as it is more common in patients over the age of 60. Risk factors for hyperparathyroidism include having had radiation treatment to the head or neck. Rarely, cancer may be the cause of the condition. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hypocalcemia

 

 

Hypocalcemia is a disorder in which there is a calcium deficiency in the blood. Calcium is an essential mineral that assists in bone strengthening, muscle contraction and proper functioning of the central nervous system. While patients with hypocalcemia may be asymptomatic, the condition can be life-threatening if left untreated. It most commonly occurs in populations where there is insufficient intake of vitamin D or in patients who have undergone a total parathyroidectomy (removal of the parathyroid glands). It may also occur as a congenital condition in infants, particularly those born prematurely or to a diabetic mother, or in infants stressed by illness or infection. ...


Read More...

 

 

Osteoporosis

 

 

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes the bones to become weak and brittle, placing them at a high risk for fracture. In all individuals, bone wears down over time, but is replaced with new bone tissue. As people age, bone loss occurs at a faster rate than new bone is created, resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the result of increasing bone loss, and is more common in older people, especially women. ...


Read More...

 

 

Parathyroidectomy

 

 

The parathyroid glands are four small glands located behind the thyroid that regulate the calcium level in the blood. By controlling the amount of calcium in the body, the parathyroid glands control the strength and density of the bones, as well as other systemic functions. A parathyroidectomy is a procedure during which one or more of the parathyroid glands is removed. The most common reason for a parathyroidectomy is the presence of a small benign tumor, known as an adenoma. The adenoma causes an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), resulting in hyperparathyroidism, an imbalance that can cause uncomfortable and serious symptoms. ...


Read More...

 

 

Pituitary Adenoma

 

 

A pituitary adenoma is a tumor that develops on the pituitary gland, a gland located at the base of the brain. Since the pituitary gland not only secretes several hormones, but also regulates secretions from other glands, an adenoma may affect many systems of the body. Pituitary adenomas are benign, though in rare instances they may become malignant. Treatment is usually required to ensure proper pituitary gland function and to alleviate or prevent symptoms. ...


Read More...

 

 

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

 

 

 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine system disorder that commonly affects women in their reproductive years. Women with PCOS often have multiple small cysts on their ovaries and experience irregular menstrual periods. PCOS is the leading cause of infertility in women and although the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to be the result of a hormonal imbalance. In women with PCOS, the ovaries produce more androgens than normal. High levels of these hormones affect the development and release of eggs during ovulation, and may also cause troubling symptoms such as excess hair growth and acne. ...


Read More...

 

 

Precocious Puberty

 

 

Puberty is the period when a young person begins the process of sexual maturation that will result in the ability to reproduce. Puberty involves accelerated growth and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. These bodily changes occur at various ages, usually between 9 and 14 years of age for girls and 12 and 16 years of age for boys, and are associated with psychological changes as well. Precocious puberty occurs when the process of sexual maturation begins at an abnormally young age. ...


Read More...

 

 

Hormone Imbalance

 

 

Hormones are natural chemicals within the cells of the body that travel through the bloodstream to organs and tissues. Hormones are essential for a variety of functions, including regulating a woman's metabolism, growth, immunity function and sexual reproduction. Hormone production tends to decrease naturally over time. As the production of certain hormones decreases, there may be an overproduction of other hormones within the body, which often results in hormonal imbalances that affect the health in different ways. ...


Read More...
 


Addison's Disease

Addison's disease is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones for proper bodily function. In people with Addison's disease, the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol, and in some cases, the adrenal glands also fail to produce enough aldosterone. These hormones are essential to body function. Cortisol affects the body response to stress, the body's ability to convert food into energy and the immune system's inflammatory response. Aldosterone helps to maintain the balance of sodium, potassium and water within the body. Both hormones also help to regulate blood pressure. When these hormones are at insufficient levels within the body, distressing and dangerous symptoms may occur. ...


Read More...

Adrenal Tumors

The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys at the back of the upper abdominal cavity. These small, triangular organs produce several hormones, including aldosterone, cortisol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, cortisone, adrenalin and norepinephrine. Tumors can cause the adrenal glands to produce too much of one or more of these substances, resulting in serious health issues. Tumors of the adrenal gland may be caused by diseases of the endocrine system, such as Conn's syndrome, or may result in the development of endocrine diseases, such as Cushing's syndrome. Most adrenal tumors, even those that cause symptoms, are benign. ...


Read More...

Bone Mineral Density Test

A bone mineral density (BMD) test evaluates an individual's bone strength by measuring the density of calcium and other minerals in particular areas of bone. During normal aging, bones lose minerals and become thinner. If they become abnormally thin, however, the patient has a condition known as osteoporosis. ...


Read More...

Cushing's Syndrome

Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder caused by long-term exposure to abnormally high levels of cortisol. Sometimes, corticosteroids used to treat inflammatory disease can lead to Cushing's syndrome. At other times, the disorder is caused by a tumor on one of the endocrine glands or on the lungs. Cushing's syndrome should not be confused with Cushing's disease, which is a form of Cushing's syndrome in which the pituitary gland secretes too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which in turn promotes the release of too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome most frequently occurs in adults between the ages of 20 and 50. Patients who are obese, diabetic, or suffer from hypertension are at greater risk of developing the disorder. ...


Read More...

Diabetes

Diabetes is the inability of the body to create or use insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas that enables sugar or glucose to enter cells. Diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disorder in which the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not respond to the insulin being produced. ...


Read More...

Endocrinology

Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the endocrine system, the system comprised of glands that produce essential hormones. These hormones regulate a great many bodily processes, including metabolism, reproduction, sexual function, growth and development. The glands of the endocrine system are the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, adrenal, pituitary, and hypothalamus. Endocrinologists diagnose and treat glandular diseases and hormone imbalances. ...


Read More...

Graves' Disease

Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system resulting in the overproduction of hormones by the thyroid gland, or hyperthyroidism. Like most other immune system irregularities, its cause is unknown, though research to date has shown that heredity, age, gender and stress level are risk factors for the condition. Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism and is most common in women between 20 and 40 years of age. Graves' disease is usually treatable and may even resolve on its own over time. Left untreated, however, a severe case can become life-threatening. ...


Read More...

Hashimoto's Disease

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland, which plays an important role in managing many of the functions of the body. Also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, Hashimoto's disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result of Hashimoto's disease, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women are more likely than men to develop this condition. Left untreated, Hashimoto's disease may cause a variety of health complications. ...


Read More...

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism, also known as an overactive thyroid gland, is a condition that occurs when the thyroid gland excretes an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. This overproduction creates more hormones than the body needs and causes many important bodily functions to speed up. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use, metabolism, heart and nervous system functions and other metabolic functions. An overproduction of thyroid hormones can lead to weight loss, irregular heartbeat and irritability. Hyperthyroidism is more common in people over the age of 60 and women are more likely than men to develop hyperthyroidism. ...


Read More...

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a common condition that occurs when an underactive thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones to properly manage many important functions of the body. The thyroid is the gland in the front of the neck that controls energy use and metabolic functions. If the thyroid gland is not active enough, it does not make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs and causes certain functions of the body to slow down. As a result, functions such as heart rate, brain function and the rate that the body converts food into energy, all slow down. Women over the age of age of 60 are at the highest risk for developing hypothyroidism. Left untreated, this condition may cause a variety of health complications including obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart disease ...


Read More...

Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy

Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland malfunctions and produces an abnormal quantity of hormones. When a malfunctioning thyroid gland produces too much or too little hormone during pregnancy, abnormal hormone secretion can be damaging not only to the mother, but to the developing fetus as well. This is because thyroid hormone is essential to the development of the fetal brain and nervous system and, until about 12 weeks into gestation, the fetus depends on its mother's supply of thyroid hormone. ...


Read More...

Acromegaly

Acromegaly is a rare endocrinological disorder in which an excessive amount of growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland after normal growth has been completed. In almost all cases, acromegaly results from a noncancerous tumor on the pituitary gland. In rare instances, acromegaly is caused by a tumor elsewhere in the body. ...


Read More...

Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia means that a patient has an overabundance of calcium in the blood. While calcium is essential and plays a significant role in maintaining bone strength, muscular contraction and central nervous system function, too much calcium can be harmful. Hypercalcemia most frequently affects women over 50 years of age. Most often, hypercalcemia is due to overactivity of the parathyroid gland, known as hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate calcium blood levels. If these glands secrete too much PTH, the result is hypercalcemia. Other possible causes of this condition include hyperthyroidism, certain types of cancer, inflammatory granulomas, adrenal gland disorders, very high dietary calcium intake, kidney failure, an overabundance of vitamin D and certain medications. ...


Read More...

Hypoparathyroidism

Hypoparathyroidism is a disease condition in which the parathyroid glands, located at the base of the neck on the thyroid glands, produce too little parathyroid hormone, known as PTH. This hormone aids in regulating the levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in the bloodstream. In patients with hypoparathyroidism, phosphorus levels increase and calcium levels decrease. ...


Read More...

Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism is a rare disorder in which the pituitary gland does not produce an adequate supply of one or more pituitary hormone. Because the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, produces hormones that control the functions of many other organs and glands, inadequate hormone production can lead to serious loss of function in one or another system of the body. ...


Read More...

Female Infertility

Couples are considered to have infertility problems if they have been unable to conceive after a prolonged period, usually a year, of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility may be attributed to the man, the woman, or both partners. When a female cause of infertility is determined, which occurs about one-third of the time, there are many measures that can be taken to help the couple conceive. Single women who are having trouble becoming pregnant may also seek medical evaluation. ...


Read More...

Metabolic Bone Diseases

Metabolic bone disease refers to a variety of disorders that affect bone strength or structure. Osteoporosis is the most widespread of these conditions, but there are a number of other metabolic bone diseases that can lead to fractures, deformity and abnormal functioning if not treated promptly. These disorders may be the result of genetic factors, diet and lifestyle, or other underlying disease conditions. ...


Read More...

Hyperparathyroidism

The parathyroid glands are four small glands in the neck that are part of the endocrine system. They produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood.

The most common disease associated with the parathyroid glands is overproduction of PTH, known as hyperparathyroidism. Twice as many women as men suffer from this condition and the risk of developing hyperparathyroidism increases with age, as it is more common in patients over the age of 60. Risk factors for hyperparathyroidism include having had radiation treatment to the head or neck. Rarely, cancer may be the cause of the condition. ...


Read More...

Hypocalcemia

Hypocalcemia is a disorder in which there is a calcium deficiency in the blood. Calcium is an essential mineral that assists in bone strengthening, muscle contraction and proper functioning of the central nervous system. While patients with hypocalcemia may be asymptomatic, the condition can be life-threatening if left untreated. It most commonly occurs in populations where there is insufficient intake of vitamin D or in patients who have undergone a total parathyroidectomy (removal of the parathyroid glands). It may also occur as a congenital condition in infants, particularly those born prematurely or to a diabetic mother, or in infants stressed by illness or infection. ...


Read More...

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition that causes the bones to become weak and brittle, placing them at a high risk for fracture. In all individuals, bone wears down over time, but is replaced with new bone tissue. As people age, bone loss occurs at a faster rate than new bone is created, resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the result of increasing bone loss, and is more common in older people, especially women. ...


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Parathyroidectomy

The parathyroid glands are four small glands located behind the thyroid that regulate the calcium level in the blood. By controlling the amount of calcium in the body, the parathyroid glands control the strength and density of the bones, as well as other systemic functions. A parathyroidectomy is a procedure during which one or more of the parathyroid glands is removed. The most common reason for a parathyroidectomy is the presence of a small benign tumor, known as an adenoma. The adenoma causes an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), resulting in hyperparathyroidism, an imbalance that can cause uncomfortable and serious symptoms. ...


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Pituitary Adenoma

A pituitary adenoma is a tumor that develops on the pituitary gland, a gland located at the base of the brain. Since the pituitary gland not only secretes several hormones, but also regulates secretions from other glands, an adenoma may affect many systems of the body. Pituitary adenomas are benign, though in rare instances they may become malignant. Treatment is usually required to ensure proper pituitary gland function and to alleviate or prevent symptoms. ...


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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine system disorder that commonly affects women in their reproductive years. Women with PCOS often have multiple small cysts on their ovaries and experience irregular menstrual periods. PCOS is the leading cause of infertility in women and although the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to be the result of a hormonal imbalance. In women with PCOS, the ovaries produce more androgens than normal. High levels of these hormones affect the development and release of eggs during ovulation, and may also cause troubling symptoms such as excess hair growth and acne. ...


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Precocious Puberty

Puberty is the period when a young person begins the process of sexual maturation that will result in the ability to reproduce. Puberty involves accelerated growth and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. These bodily changes occur at various ages, usually between 9 and 14 years of age for girls and 12 and 16 years of age for boys, and are associated with psychological changes as well. Precocious puberty occurs when the process of sexual maturation begins at an abnormally young age. ...


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Hormone Imbalance

Hormones are natural chemicals within the cells of the body that travel through the bloodstream to organs and tissues. Hormones are essential for a variety of functions, including regulating a woman's metabolism, growth, immunity function and sexual reproduction. Hormone production tends to decrease naturally over time. As the production of certain hormones decreases, there may be an overproduction of other hormones within the body, which often results in hormonal imbalances that affect the health in different ways. ...


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